A written change, addition, alteration, correction or revision to a bid, proposal or contract document.


A formal or official change made to a law, contract, constitution, or other legal document. Amendments can add, remove, or update parts of these agreements.


Supporting documents added to bids, contracts, requisitions and purchase order submittals to provide information throughout the approval process.


Detailed review and examination of records, documents and business processes. 


Standard clauses used in a bid or contract document. The University Standard Agreement and Fee For Service Agreement are examples of boilerplates.

Brand Name or Equal

A form of specification whereby the commodity or product is described by a unique identifier specific to a particular seller or manufacturer.

Business Justification

A reason or defense for proceeding with a purchase in a non-competitive environment.


University staff knowledgeable in the procurement of goods and services.

Competitive Sealed Bids

Competitive Sealed Bids are the university's method of awarding contracts for goods and/or services with estimated values of $150,000 or greater.


A written agreement, fully executed (signed by all parties), containing an offer and acceptance for consideration.

Cooperative Procurement Programs

Two or more entities combine their requirements to obtain advantages of volume purchases.


eBid is the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's online bidding system which eliminates traditional paper bids and replaces them with an electronic process via the internet.

Emergency Procurement

Emergency shall mean any situation where it is necessary that the university enter into a contract of purchase to:

  • avoid the loss of life, health, safety, or property.
  • respond to time limits established by a person or agency external to the university.
  • obtain cost savings for the university where the time constraints of competitive bidding would eliminate the cost savings.

eSHOP is a web-based ordering tool that provides the University of Nebraska system with the most streamlined, cost effective way to place orders with suppliers.  End-users have the ability to create requisitions for a range of items: from pens and keyboards to custom servers and furniture orders.

Evaluation Criteria

Benchmarks or standards by which Request for Proposal responses will be measured to determine conformance to the Scope of Work.

Framework Order

An agreement to purchase a given quantity of goods over a specified period of time, usually one year.

Informal Bid

This method may be used by departments if the estimated value of the item(s) to be purchased is between $5,000 and $9,999. Informal price quotations are secured and documented in a manner determined to be the most appropriate for the goods and services involved.  Award is made to the lowest, responsible bidder.

Invitation to Bid (ITB)

This term is used when you know the details, require a specific manufacturer and model specifications and the estimated budget is $150,000 or greater.  A formal method of solicitation whereby suppliers are requested to submit a bid for the provision of goods, normally used for standard, off-the-shelf items. Price is the main factor for award.   An ITB must be “open” for a minimum of 15 days. It will be issued by Procurement Services and posted on the website.

Non-Competitive Purchase

Restrictive non-competitive proprietary specifications shall not be used, except in cases of emergency or in cases involving the purchase of unique (including matching existing equipment or software) or non-competitive articles or services.  Each request for a non-competitive purchase shall be accompanied by a written justification from the requesting unit.  Each non-competitive purchase must have prior written approval by the principal business officer [RP (b).] 


An act of one person that gives another person the legal power to create a contract to which both of them are parties. In practice, the bid or proposal submitted by a supplier is an offer.

Prime Supplier

The University of Nebraska-Lincoln is strategically aligned with a selection of Prime Suppliers, with the purpose of providing products and services at a greater value. We strongly encourage university departments to utilize these contracts when making a purchase.


A challenge to the award or proposed award of a contract for procurement of goods and services or a challenge to the terms of a solicitation for such a contract.

Purchase Order

A purchase order is a legal document used by the university, authorizing a supplier to provide a product or service to the institution. It is a type of contract.

Quotes (also called Bids or Estimates)

An offer to provide a product or service for a particular price. Informal Quotes/Bids/Estimates include but are not limited to paper copies, emails, and quotes by phone.

Request for Information (RFI)

This term is used when you are seeking information or determining budget. It is an instrument to conduct a market survey in order to obtain information from the market that can be used to identify available or potential solutions for fulfilling identified needs, which may include information on cost and delivery time.

Request for Proposal (RFP)

This term is used when you have a concept with a set of specifications or needs for consideration. A formal method of solicitation where prospective suppliers are requested to submit a proposal for the provision of goods, works or services, based on the specifications, scope of work, or terms of reference included in the solicitation documents. Normally used in cases where the requirements are complex; cannot be clearly or completely specified, where detailed technical evaluations are to be performed, and/or where pricing or cost may not be the sole basis of award.

Request for Qualifications

This usually refers to the pre-qualification stage of the procurement process. Only those proponents who successfully respond to the RFQ and meet the qualification criteria will be included in the subsequent Request for Proposal solicitation process.

Request for Quotation (RFQ)

This term is used when you have detailed specifications defined and the estimated budget is below $150,000. It is an informal method of solicitation whereby suppliers are requested to submit a quotation for the provision of goods or services. Requests for quotation are normally used for standard items, where the value of the procurement falls below the established threshold for formal methods of solicitation.


Formal requests submitted by departments for supplies, equipment, or services. It is not an order and is not valid off campus.

Responsible Bidder

Contractor or supplier that:

  • has adequate financial resources to perform a contract
  • is able to comply with the associated legal or regulatory requirements
  • is able to deliver according to the contract schedule
  • has a history of satisfactory performance
  • has good reputation regarding integrity
  • has or can obtain necessary data, equipment, and facilities
  • is otherwise eligible and qualified to receive award

Responsive Bid

The submitted document meets all of the solicitation requirements of the Invitation to Bid or Request for Proposal.


The system of record for university-wide financial transactions.

Scope of Work (SOW)

Describes the outcome or end result sought by the buyer rather than describing how to accomplish that result.


A description of a good or service to enable bidders to know precisely what is being purchased and to assist the end-user in defining or describing their requirements.

State Funds

State funds are defined as any held and disbursed monies by the State Treasurer, regardless of the original source. In other words, contracts leading to expenditures funded from revolving, auxiliary, federal, private, and trust funds are reportable under LB429.

Statement of Work (SOW)

Proposed solution by the successful proposer responding to the Scope of Work in a solicitation.

Strategic Sourcing

Methodology to analyze what and how a jurisdiction acquires products and services with the objective of lowering costs to the organization and improving supply fulfillment.

Terms & Conditions (T’s & C’s)

Standard boilerplate language that includes standard clauses and rules which apply to formally solicited bids and offers that may become incorporated into the final contract.